Publications & Presentations

The list below includes publications relevant to the referential process.

There are also separate lists for:


Referential Process Publications

Appelman, E. (2000). Attachment experiences transformed into language. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(2), 192-202.

Baxter, M. & Bucci, W. (1981). Studies in linguistic ambiguity and insecurity. Urban Health, 36--40.

Baxter, M. & Bucci, W. (1994). Patterns of communication in Black English. In S Friedman (Ed.), Anxiety Disorders in African Americans, N.Y.: Springer Publishing Company, Inc., 40-52.

Bouchard, M., Lecours, S. (1998). Some comments on Bucci's Multiple Code Psychoanalytic Psychology. Canadian Journal of Psychoanalysis, 6, 261-270.

Bucci, W. (1975). Extended generative semantics: An operational approach. Foundations of Language, 13, 1-23.

Bucci, W. (1978). The interpretation of universal affirmative propositions: A developmental study. Cognition, 6, 55-77.

Bucci, W. (1982). The vocalization of painful affect. Journal of Communication Disorders, 15, 415-440.

Bucci, W. (1984). Linking words and things: Basic processes and individual variation. Cognition, 17, 137-153.

Bucci, W. (1985). Dual Coding: A cognitive model for psychoanalytic research. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 571-607.

Bucci, W. (1988). Discussion of “The Primary Process of Dramatization” by David A.S. Garfield. Dynamic Psychotherapy, 6, 21-24.

Bucci, W. (1988). Converging evidence for emotional structures. In Dahl, H., Kaechele, H., Thomae, H., (Eds.) Psychoanalytic Process Research Strategies, N.Y.: Springer.

Bucci, W. (1988). A dual coding “glossary ‘for the psychoanalytic process. Forum of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis. 32, 8-11.

Bucci, W. (1989). A reconstruction of Freud's tally argument: A program for psychoanalytic research. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 9, 249-281.

Bucci, W. (1989). Words are not enough: A review of “The language of love: The Semantics of passion in conversational English”, by Zoltan Kovecses. Metaphor and symbolic activity, 4, 65-69.

Bucci, W. (1989). When language fails: A psychoanalytic appraisal of alexithymic Disorders. Contemporary Psychology.

Bucci, W. (1993). The development of emotional meaning in free association: A multiple code theory. In Gedo, J., and Wilson, A. (Eds.) Hierarchical Conceptions in Psychoanalysis. N.Y. Guilford Press.

Bucci, W. (1994). The multiple code theory and the psychoanalytic process. Annals of Psychoanalysis.

Bucci, W. (1994). The multiple code theory and the referential process; A new framework for psychoanalytic research. In Caro, I. (Ed.) Psicoterapia e Investigacion de Proceso (Psychotherapy and Process Research). Valencia, Spain: Editorial Promolibro.

Bucci, W. (1995). The power of the narrative; A multiple code account. In Pennebaker, J. (Ed.) Emotion, Disclosure and Health, Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Books, pp. 93-122.

Bucci, W. (1996). Psychoanalysis as Science: Commentary. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 43, 987-1001.

Bucci, W. (1996). Review of “Research in Psychoanalysis: Process, Development, Outcome.” T. Shapiro and R.N. Emde (Eds.). International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 77, 827-833.

Bucci, W. (1997). Patterns of discourse in “good” and troubled hours; A multiple Code interpretation. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 45, 155-187.

Bucci, W. (1997). Review of “The Dyadic Transaction: An Investigation into the Nature of the Psychotherapeutic Process.” S. Eisenstein, N.A. Levy and J. Marmor. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 45, 281-287.

Bucci, W. (1997). Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Science: A multiple code theory. N.Y.: Guilford Press.

Bucci, W. (1997). Symptoms and symbols; A multiple code theory of somatization. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 17, 151-172.

Bucci, W. (1997). Referential Activity and the CCRT. 20 th Ulm Workshop of Empirical Research in Psychoanalysis, June 19 - 21, 1997. On line publication. http://sip.medizin.uni-ulm.de/Ulm20/Start.htm, Ulmer Textbank. (CD ROM, 20th Workshop).

Bucci, W. (1998). Transformation of meanings in the analytic discourse; A strategy for research. Canadian Journal of Psychoanalysis, 6, 233-260.

Bucci, W. (1998). Toward a scientific model of the psychoanalytic process: A new “Project”. Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy, 15, 257-280.

Bucci, W. (1998). Beyond symbolizing; A response to Bornstein's review. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 15, 569-575.

Bucci, W. (1999). The multiple code theory and the “third ear”; The role of theory and research in clinical practice. Psichiatria e Psicoterapia Analitica, 18, 299-310.

Bucci, W. (2000). The need for a “psychoanalytic psychology” in the cognitive science field. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 17, 203-224.

Bucci, W. (2001). Review of “Unformulated experience: From Dissociation to Imagination in Psychoanalysis by D.B. Stern, J. Amer. Acad. Psychoanal.,28, 752-759.

Bucci, W. (2001). Pathways of emotional communication. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 20, 40-70. Bucci, W. (2001) Toward a “psychodynamic science”: The state of current research. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 49/1, 57-68.

Bucci, W. (2001). En apoyo de la inferencia psicoanal.tica: el rol de los modelos psicol.gicos", in Maldavsky, D. (Ed.) Subjetividad y procesos cognitivos.

Bucci, W. (2002). The challenge of diversity in modern psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 19/1, 216-226.

Bucci, W. (2002). From subsymbolic to symbolic and back; Therapeutic impact of the referential process. In Lasky, R. (Ed), Symbolization and Desymbolization: Essays in Honor of Norbert Freedman. New York: Other Press, Karnap, pp. 50-74

Bucci, W. (2002). Multiple code theory and the Referential process; Applications to Process Research. In Fonagy et al., (Eds.) An Open Door Review of Outcome Studies in Psychoanalysis; Second Edition. International Psychoanalytical Association, pp. 192-195.

Bucci, W. (2002). Referential Activity (RA): Scales and computer procedures. In Fonagy et al., (Eds.) An Open Door Review of Outcome Studies in Psychoanalysis; Second Edition. International Psychoanalytical Association, pp. 286-288.

Bucci, W. (2002). The Referential Process, Consciousness, and the Sense of Self Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 22, 766-793

Bucci, W. (2002). The language of emotions; An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Evolution and Cognition, pp. 172-183.

Bucci, W. (2003). Varieties of dissociative experiences: A multiple code account and a discussion of Bromberg’s case of William. Psychoanalytic Psychology. Vol. 20, No. 3, 542-557.

Bucci, W. (2004). Kognitionswissenschaften un Psychoanalyse: Neue Perspektiven zur Multiple- Code Theorie. In Giampieri-Deutsch, P. (Ed.) Psychoanalyse im Dialog der Wissenschaften. Vienna: Kohlhammer.

Bucci, W. (2005). Basic concepts and methods of psychoanalytic process research. In Person, E., Cooper, A., and Gabbard, G. (Eds.) Textbook of Psychoanalysis, American Psychiatric Press, pp. 339-355.

Bucci, W. (2005). The interplay of subsymbolic and symbolic processes in Psychoanalytic treatment: Commentary on paper by Steven H. Knoblauch. Psychoanalytic Dialogues. 15, 855-873.

Bucci, W. (2007). Building the interface of research and practice; Achievements And Unresolved Questions. In Bucci, W. and Freedman, N. ( Eds.) From Impression to Inquiry: The Integration of Clinical and Research Perspectives in the work of Robert Wallerstein. London: International Psychoanalytical Association Press, pp. 175-204.

Bucci, W. (2007). New Perspectives on the multiple code theory; The role of bodily experience in emotional organization. In F. S. Anderson (Ed.) Bodies in Treatment; The Unspoken Dimension. Hillsdale, N.J.: The Analytic Press, Inc., pp. 51-77.

Bucci, W. (2007). Dissociation from the perspective of multiple code theory: Part I; Psychological roots and implications for psychoanalytic treatment. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 43, 165-184

Bucci, W. (2007). Dissociation from the perspective of multiple code theory: Part II; The spectrum of dissociative processes in the psychoanalytic relationship. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 43, 305-326

Bucci, W. (2007). Four Domains Of Experience In The Therapeutic Discourse. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 27, 617-639.

Bucci, W. (2008). New perspectives on the dissociative disorders; Review of: Somatoform Dissociation: Phenomena, Measurement and Theoretical Issues by Ellert R.S. Nijenhuis. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis

Bucci, W. & Freedman, N. (1978). Language and hand: The dimension of referential competence. Journal of Personality, 46, 594-622.

Bucci, W. & Freedman, N. (1981). The language of depression. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 45, 334-358.

Bucci, W. & Baxter, M. (1984). Problems of linguistic insecurity in multi-cultural Speech contexts. In Proceedings of the N.Y. Academy of Sciences, 185--200.

Bucci, W., Kabasakalian-McKay, R, Graham, E.A., & the RA Research Group. (2004). Scoring Referential Activity Instructions for Use with Transcripts of Spoken Texts

Bucci, W., Severino, S.K. & Creelman, M.L. (1991). The effects of menstrual cycle hormones on dreams. Dreaming, 1 263-275.

Bucci, W. & Miller, N. (1993). Primary process: A new formulation and an Analogue measure. In Miller, N., Luborsky, L., Barber, J., & Docherty, J. (Eds.) Handbook of dynamic psychotherapy research and practice, N.Y.: Basic Books, pp. 387-406.

Bucci, W., Zoppi L., & Solano L. (2001). Teoria del codice multiplo e attivit referenziale: significato e impieghi nella ricerca sulla salute. In Solano L. (Ed.) Tra Mente e Corpo: come si costruisce la salute, Roma: Raffaello Cortina, pp.231-255.

Bucci, W. & Maskit, B. (2006). A weighted dictionary for Referential Activity. In J.G. Shanahan, Y. Qu, & J. Wiebe (Eds.) Computing Attitude and Affect in Text; Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer; pp. 49-60.

Bucci, W. & Maskit, B. (2007). Beneath the surface of the therapeutic interaction; The psychoanalytic method in modern dress. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 55, 1355-1397.

Bucci, W., Maskit, M. & Hoffman, L. (2012). Objective Measures of Subjective Experience; 
The Use of Therapist Notes in Process-Outcome Research. Psychodynamic Psychiatry.

DiNardo, C., Schober, M., Stuart, J. (2005). Chair and couch discourse: A study of visual corespondence in psychoanalysis. Discourse Processes, 40(3), 209-238.

Dodd, M. & Bucci, W. (1987). The relation of cognition and affect in the orientation process. Cognition, 27, 53-71.

Fertuck, E.A., Bucci, W., Blatt, S.J., and Ford, R.A. (2004). Verbal representation and therapeutic change in anaclitic and introspective inpatients. Psychotherapy: Theory/ Research/ Practice/Training 

Freedman, N. & Bucci, W. (1981). On kinetic filtering in associative monologue.
Semiotica, 34, 225-249.

Freedman, N. & Bucci, W. (1983). The orthogenetic principle and psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Review, 70, 347-357.

Freedman, N. and Bucci, W. (2007). Robert Wallerstein's vision and the evolution of psychoanalytic research - the one and the many. In Bucci, W. & Freedman, N. (Eds) From Impression to Inquiry: The Integration of Clinical and Research Perspectives in the work of Robert Wallerstein. London: International Psychoanalytical Association Press, pp. 1-10.

Freedman, N., Bucci, W., & Elkowitz, E. (1982). The study of depression in the community resident elderly population. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 30, 372--377

Fretter, P., Bucci, W., Broitman, J., Silberschatz, G., Curtis, J. (1994). How the patient's plan relates to the concept of transference. Psychotherapy Research, 4, 56-70.

Freedman, N., van Meel, J., Barroso, F, & Bucci, W. (1986). On the development of communicative competence. Semiotica, 26, 62, 77-105.

Friedman, R.C., Bucci, W., Christian, C., Drucker, P., and Garrison, W.B. (1998). Private psychotherapy patients of psychiatrist-psychoanalysts. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 1772-1774.

Friedman, R.C., Garrison, W. B. III, Bucci, W., Gorman, B.S. (2005). Factors affecting change in private psychotherapy patients of senior psychoanalysts: An Effectiveness Study Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis 33(4): pp. 583-611

Gilani, Z., Bucci, W. & Freedman, N. (1985). The structure and content of a silence. Semiotica, 56, 99-113.

Hoffman, L., Algus, J., Braun, W., Bucci, W. & Maskit, B. (In press). Treatment Notes: Objective measures of language style point to clinical insights. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association.

Horowitz, M.J., Stinson, C., Curtis, D., Ewert, M., Redington, D., Singer, J., Bucci, W., Mergenthaler, E., Milbrath, C., Hartley, D. (1993). Topics and signs: Defensive control of emotional expression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 61, 421-430.

Jepson, L. and Bucci, W. (1999). Object relations and referential activity in physically abused adolescents. Adolescence, 34, 781-792

Langs, R., Bucci, W., Udoff, A., Cramer, G., & Thomson, L. (1993). Two methods of assessing unconscious communication in psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 10(1), 1-16.

Luborsky, L., Stuart, J., Friedman, S., Diguer, L., Seligman, D.A., Bucci, W., Pulver, S., Krause, E.D., Ermold, J., Davison, W.T., Woody, G., Mergenthaler, E. (2001). The Penn Psychoanalytic Treatment Collection: A set of complete and recorded psychoanalyses as a research resource. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 49, 219-234.

Mariani, R., Maskit, B., Bucci, W., & De Coro, A. (In Press). Linguistic Measures of the Referential Process in Psychodynamic Treatment: The English and Italian Versions. Psychotherapy Research

Mendelsohn, R., Bucci, W. & Chouhy, R. (1992). A survey of attitudes toward transference and countertransference among classical and interpersonal analysts. Contemporary Psychoanalysis. 28, 364-390.

Mergenthaler, E. and Bucci, W. (1999). Linking verbal and nonverbal representations: Computer analysis of Referential Activity. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 72, 339-354.

Meyer, E., Lenzenweger, M., Meyer, E. (2009). The specificity of referential thinking: A comparison of schizotypy and social anxiety. Psychiatry Research, 165(1/2), 78-87.

Michal, M., Overbeck, G., Grabhorn, R., Stirn, A., Mergenthaler, E., Jordan, J. (2001). Relationship, resistance and insight as depicted in measures concerning form and content of speech - a textual analysis of the course of a female in-patient with eating disorder. Zeitschrift Fur Psychosomatische Medizin Und Psychotherapie, 47(4), 348-365.

Nelson, K., Moskowitz, D., & Steiner, H. (2008). Narration and vividness as measures of event specificity in autobiographical memory. Discourse Processes, 45, 195-209.

Normandin, L., Dube, J. (2007). Mental activity and referential activity of beginning therapists: A construct validity study of the Countertransference Rating System (CRS). American Journal of Psychotherapy, 61(4), 351-374.

Pavlinovic, L., Bucci, W., Hoffman, L., Maskit, B. (2009). Evaluation of psychoanalytic treatment notes using language and theme measures. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 57(2), 439-444.

Pessier, J., Stuart, J. (2000). A new approach to the study of therapeutic work in the transference. Psychotherapy Research, 10(2), 169-180.

Ritter, M., Bucci, W., Beebe, B., Jaffe, J., Maskit, B. (2007). Do mothers of secure infants speak differently than mothers of avoidant infants in natural conversations? An interpersonal exploration of language differences. American Psychoanalytic Association, 55(1), 269-275.

Roussos, A.J., Bucci, W., & Maskit B. (2007). A second generation clinical library: First steps. In Bucci, W. & Freedman, N. (Eds) From Impression to Inquiry: The Integration of Clinical and Research Perspectives in the work of Robert Wallerstein. London: International Psychoanalytical Association Press, pp. 152-174.

Sammons, M., Siegel, P., Nieto, C. (Translator) Una comparación de FRAMES con el CCRT y la CRA. / A comparison of FRAMES with core conflictual relationship theme and computerized referential activity. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, Vol 7(2), Aug 1998, 131-145.

Severino, S., Bucci, W. & Creelman, M. (1989). Cyclical changes in emotional information processing in sleep and dreams. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 17

Stinson, C.H., Milbrath, C., Reidbord, S., and Bucci, W. (1994). Thematic segmentation of psychotherapy transcripts for convergent analysis. Psychotherapy 31, 36-48.

Stiles, W.B., Benjamin, L.S., Elliott, R., Fonagy, P., Greenberg, L.S., Hermans, H.J.M., Bucci, W., Karon, B., and Leiman, M. (1997). Multiple voices: A virtual discussion. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 7, 241-263.

Watson, J. (1996). The relationship between vivid description, emotional arousal, and in-session resolution of problematic reactions. Journal Of Consulting And Clinical Psychology, 64(3), 459-464.